A while back I talked about what I saw as the two different kinds of threats out there:
There are, as I see it, two kinds of violent encounters: Predatorial and Adversarial. The “sudden encounter” is a predator attack, be it mugger, rapist or Rottweiler. Those types of encounter require you to be on your game rightthisveryinstant and respond to the attack with enough force to end things.
The Adversarial attack is road rage or the loudmouth in bar itchin’ for a fight or the jealous spouse of a co-worker or the fight between friends that gets out of hand. Those happen in fairly well-defined patterns and if they get out of hand, they get out of hand in predictable paths that can be countered (or better yet, de-escalated) in predictable ways.
Ymaa.com has more.
Generally, violence can be broken down into two very broad categories: social and asocial. Social violence is what, in the natural world, would be the types of violence common within a single species. This intra-species violence does not follow the dynamic or use the same tactics as violence against other species.
The dominance game of snakes wrestling or bears pushing and mouthing is not the same as the way the same species hunt prey. Social violence includes ritualized jockeying for territory or status. It also includes acts to prove or increase group solidarity (a powerful side-effect of hunting as a team) and violence to enforce the rules and mores of the group.
Asocial violence does not target the victim as a person, but as a resource. Asocial violence is the domain of the predator and the humanity of his victim does not enter into the equation.
Read, as they say, the whole thing.